The concept of sovereignty and laicism is still being instrumented into different projections to that which have been conceived and used through the french revolution and the old regime. This article is not to discuss that, but to delight how another concept deduced from it becomes antagonistic with it in the French context. Laicity referred to the French V constitution, or the act of 1905, it’s not what it appears, and is mostly known in the French literature, this article is to reject all that, and goes toward an etymological construction of the concept into the french politics since XV century. Then to examination who and how the old regime and the XIX century have been involved with the religious beliefs than to answer the questions: does the revolution been laic or atheist? The answer is useful to go forward with the examination of the french act of the separation of the State from the churches of 1905 and to determine if that act has been laic or atheist. The questions of how the idea of laicism has been reversed into the interwar period thus to the 1958 constitution to be developed in further work, but the conclusion proposed here is the evidence of constitutional inter-contradiction and reversed usage of the concept which is being instrumented today further then constitutional idolatry, but a constitutional nihilism.
Abstract History is not simply a narrated story; it is a transgenerational melancholy revealed allegorically as a flattened and self-regarding past and imposed on future generations as an identitarian and nostalgic nexus. Melancholy for some is the calamity of others. When harmful dynamics are disseminated and false identitarian constructs are presented as the victor’s version […]
influence: that which is related to intimate ontological life. The paper will analyse urban usages, philological aspects, protocols, social rituals and other factors of personality interference, belonging and individual behaviour. Neutrality will be maintained through the use of terms such as groups, individuals or collectivities rather than terms such as societies or communities to avoid associating these groups with political categories. Finally, the intersectionality of identitarianism and belonging will be examined in relation to three countries: Egypt, Iraq and Syria.
The constitutional principle introduced in article 16.2 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, which forbids compelling one to declare their own religion, ideology, or beliefs, does not exist in other legal systems, as religious and ethnic belonging is considered to be part of the civil and/or national identity. In cases such as Iraq and Egypt, the law not only requires the declaration of personal religious affiliation but also records it in the civil register along with additional information on ethnicity and religious schools of thought. This officially registered information is a condition for the exercise of other civil liberties. This article analyzes this issue by focusing on several case law studies from such countries, It should be noted that many of these legal practices are residuals from European colonialism; while these practices were forbidden in Europe, they were often implemented in the colonies. Using empirical references, this article highlights this issue that still haunts many post-colonial societies under the old legal alibi of the protection of minorities.
Summary. The recent mediatic, populist, and/or calamitous events in France are just the tip of the iceberg of a geopolitical complexity rather than an internal demographic issue as it is intended to be. The first dimension refers to an articulated external pulse since the departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union, the Brexit, […]
The costly American inversion in their wars for the hegemony since the emergence of the new world order has exceeded 49 times than the cost of the European mortgage by Marshall plan. Meanwhile, the emergence of China bates the American interests in Iraq and Afghanistan, stripping the American inversion in vain. Enough reason to detonate a global conflict and urges a change in the paradigm of American intelligence within a holistic and global vision further than the classical regional particularism.
Very similar pandemic to Covid-19 evidence has been documented in Bagdad into the years 462H, coinciding in the same year with the earthquakes into Egypt and Jerusalem, and the Battle of Manzikert. The illness appears to be known previously, having killed royalty members in the fourth century, but through the year 462H (1070 AC) has killed around 70 thousands of people in one single week in the city of Bagdad. It has extended from Bagdad to Mosul, Damascus and Basra and the region. Entire families died, and their homes have been closed into them, several streets all their habitats die, and has been closed entirely. Several city areas, villages disappear entirely. The sickness propagated into humans, horses, and doves, was known as respiratory difficulty, fever, general weakness and die into 5 to 7 days, but there’s no evidence founded regarding skin redness as known today with Covid-19. Doctors weren’t able to explain it, didn’t respond to hot either cold, they didn’t control it, neither eradicated unless by confining the population.
Shiism is something of a mystery in the Western world. Security and intelligence communities are often confused about how to identify the types of schools within Islam. In response to the recent German banning of Hezbollah, the international Iranian proxy, we try to identify and illustrate the expansion of Shia ideology and provide a short description of it.